Religious abbreviations

The ecclesiastical words most commonly abbreviated at all times are proper namestitles official or customaryof persons or corporationsand words of frequent occurrence.

The Jewish scribes and Talmudic scholars also had frequent recourse to abbreviations. Between the seventh and ninth centuries the ancient Roman system of abbreviations gave way to a more difficult one that gradually grew up in the monastic houses and in the chanceries of the new Teutonic kingdoms.

MerovingianLombardand Anglo-Saxon scripts offer each their own abbreviations, not to speak of the unique scotica manus or libri scottice scripti Irish hand, or books written in the medieval Irish hand.

Eventually such productive centres of technical manuscripts as the Papal Chancerythe theological schools of Paris and Oxfordand the civil-law school of Bologna set the standards of abbreviations for all Europe. Medieval manuscripts abound in abbreviations, owing in part to the abandonment of the uncialor quasi -uncial, and the almost universal use of the cursive, hand. The medieval writer inherited a few from Christian antiquity; others he invented or adapted, in order to save time and parchment.

They are found especially in manuscripts of scholastic theology and canon law, annals and chronicles, the Roman law, and in administrative documents, civil and privileges, bulls, rescripts. They multiplied with time, and were never so numerous as on the eve of the discovery of printing; many of the early printed books offer this peculiarity, together with other characteristics of the manuscript page.

religious abbreviations

The development of printing brought about the abandonment of many abbreviations, while it suggested and introduced new ones a process also favoured by the growth of ecclesiastical legislation, the creation of new offices, etc. There was less medieval abbreviation in the text of books much used on public occasions, e. The means of abbreviation were usually full points or dots mostly in Roman antiquitythe semicolon eventually conventionalizedlines horizontal, perpendicular, oblong, wavy curves, and commas.

Vowel-sounds were frequently written not after, but over, the consonants. Certain letters, like p and q, that occur with extreme.

Habit and convenience are today the principal motives for using abbreviations. Most of those in actual use fall under one or other of the following heads: AdministrativeLiturgicalScholasticand Chronological.

The first class of abbreviations includes those used in the composition of Pontifical documents. They were once very numerous, and lists of them may be seen in the works quoted below e. QuantinProu. In the transaction of ordinary business the Roman Congregations are wont to use certain brief and pithy formulas e.

They are not, correctly speaking, abbreviations. For a list of these see Canon law. This class includes also the abbreviations for the names of most sees. Under this general heading may be included all abbreviated forms of addresses in ordinary intercourse, whether of individuals or of members of religious orders, congregations, institutes, to which may be added the forms of addresses usual for members of Catholic lay societies and the Papal orders of merit.

See Catholic societiesorders of merit. The abbreviations of the titles of Roman Congregationsand of the individual canonical ecclesiastical authorities, belong also to this class. A second class of abbreviations includes those used in the description of liturgical acts or the directions for their performance, e. Here may also be classed the abbreviated forms for the name of GodJesus Christand the Holy Ghost ; also for the names of the Blessed Virginthe saints, etc.

In the third class belong scholastic abbreviations, used to designate honorific titles acquired in the schools, to avoid the repetition of lengthy titles of books and reviews, or to facilitate reference to ecclesiastical and civil legislation. In the fourth class of abbreviations belong all such as are used to describe the elements of the year, civil or ecclesiastical. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Wilson is tied with Eli Manning(2011) for the most fourth-quarter touchdown passes in a single season.

Blake Bortles played well against the Colts last week, and I think it will carry over here. It won't be as good, but good enough. The Jaguars win a low-scoring game. Schematically, these two defenses are mirror images of each other, but Jacksonville has the superior unit at this point. In fact, the Jaguars are the most talented team in football on the defensive side. The advantage Seattle has in this matchup is the fact the Seahawks offense practices against this scheme every day.

Now, they have to travel all the way across the country, and Jacksonville is ready for a slugfest. This is a supreme test for both teams. Athlete of the Week Stats for Kids Youth ProgramsFuel Up To Play 60 Play 60 Tuesdays Jr. Watch Video Week 14: Seahawks at Jaguars Preview Posted Dec 8th, 2017 The Seattle Seahawks hit the road this weekend for a Week 14 matchup with the Jacksonville Jaguars.

Watch Video Seahawks Are "Fired Up For This Opportunity" At Jacksonville Posted Dec 8th, 2017 The Seattle Seahawks took advantage of being able to practice outside all week and are "fired up" for the upcoming game against Jacksonville on Sunday. Watch Latest Photos Photos Week 14: Thursday Practice Posted Dec 8th, 2017 Photos from Thursday's practice at Virginia Mason Athletic Center as the Seahawks ready for their Week 14 matchup with the Jacksonville Jaguars at Everbank Field.

View Photos Kids Club Members of the Game Posted Dec 8th, 2017 Did you know that Kids Club All-Pro and MVP members are automatically entered for a chance to win two tickets to a Seahawks home game. Check out this year's lucky Kids Club members of the game.

View Photos Seahawks vs Jaguars Through The Years Posted Dec 7th, 2017 Take a look back through history at the Seahawks' matchups against the Jaguars as the two teams ready to face off during Week 14 at Everbank Field.

Who draws first blood: Jared Goff or Carson Wentz. When the Los Angeles Rams took Jared Goff No. And when they face off Sunday at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, it will be just the fifth time in that era that those two quarterbacks will face each other.

Try Week 15 of the 1983 season, when defending Super Bowl champion Washington (34. And while Wentz is leading the NFL with 29 touchdown passes and attempting to become the first Eagle to at least share the league lead since Roman Gabriel in 1973, Goff has improved his Total QBR from an NFL-low 18.

FPI gives the Eagles a 52 percent chance to win, by 0. When the Rams' Jared Goff and the Eagles' Carson Wentz meet Sunday, it will mark the fifth time since 1967 that QBs drafted Nos. USA TODAY Sports, Getty ImagesCan the Jaguars nullify Russell Wilson's late-game heroics. Last week in this space, we waxed on about how the Eagles looked like the natural successors to the Seahawks, then Seattle handled Philadelphia in prime time.DYNABELLE only able to place as favourite at only start at Bunbury but should find the lead easily having drawn well, needs the breaks.

Missile Launch (5) 9. More Bxaar (3) 4. Grenouille (11) Hard to see anything upsetting the top two choices. MISSILE LAUNCH and came on strong to win last start to break maiden at Bunbury when fresh and Patrick Carbery a bonus, in the mix. MORE BXAAR placed last start at Ascot and has two placings from three runs this prep, dangerous. Duck Feet (4) 4. Brother's Keeper (12) 6. Prying Tom (11) 2. Rich Red (10) Stand-out between the top two picks. DUCK FEET last start winner at Ascot and could come on strong to threaten, among the main chances.

BROTHER'S KEEPER last start winner at Geraldton and has the speed to overcome drawing the widest barrier, among the chances. PRYING TOM has the speed to overcome a very wide draw and two from three wins have been in the dry, don't dismiss.

RICH RED unwanted by the market but right up there last start at Ascot when first up and generally strong second-up, place claims. Young Gina (15) 9. Rare Coin (1) 14. Remunerator (10) BLACKLINE first-up after 26 week spell and placed in both lead-up trials, perfectly placed. YOUNG GINA let-up and chased well to fall just short last start at Bunbury, each-way claims. RARE COIN resumes from a 23 week spell and placed when trialling at Lark Hill, place only.

The Gospel Sin (5) 5. Paris Texas (7) 4. Kimbo's Girl (8) 1. Majestic Man (1) Looks a toss up between the top two selections. THE GOSPEL SIN a winner at first outing this prep and rates highly with Shaun Mc Gruddy aboard, marginal top pick.

PARIS TEXAS back after 24 week break and placed in last trial at Lark Hill, should be thereabouts. KIMBO'S GIRL coming off a win at Bunbury when first up and should look to roll forward, in with a chance. MAJESTIC MAN kept chasing and just missed last start at Ascot when first up, dangerous.

A Good Plan (4) 2. It's Got It All (16) 16. Thunderplump (1) Solid pace expected in this one. A GOOD PLAN has had a flying start to their career and likely to race on the speed, a winning chance. EASEWOLD first-up after 16 week break and won Belmont trial convincingly, place hope. IT'S GOT IT ALL led all the way to win at only start at Narrogin and has the speed to overcome a very wide draw, place best.

Private Hero (3) 2. Red Scarlet (5) 3. Royal Atom (4) 6. Mr Scary (6) PRIVATE HERO a winner at first outing this prep and Stephanie Lacy a bonus, the testing material.Glasgow Warriors vs Montpellier: Glasgow by 7 Scarlets vs Benetton Rugby: Scarlets by 23 Toulon vs Bath: Toulon by 8 Northampton vs Ospreys: Northampton by 10 Castres vs Racing 92: Castres by 7 Harlequins vs Ulster: Harlequins by 3 La Rochelle vs Wasps: La Rochelle by 5 Saracens vs Clermont: Saracens by 8 Exeter vs Leinster: Exeter by 5 googletag.

Media TEAMtalk media AddSuite Honeykome Mobimedia Partners Sky Sports FOX Sports Asia Kwese Sports Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions Contact Us Advertise with Us if (typeof googletag. USA TODAY NETWORK presents VRtually There, a weekly virtual reality series that delivers amazing adventures, extreme nature, sports fantasies and the world's most fascinating people.

We don't just tell incredible stories, we let you live the experience in fully immersive environments. Download the USA TODAY app, now with virtual reality and subscribe to our YouTube page. Three new thrilling VR experiences each week. Subscribe today for full access on your desktop, tablet, and mobile device. A link has been posted to your Facebook feed. To find out more about Facebook commenting please read the Conversation Guidelines and FAQs Bob Wojnowski and John Niyo discuss the Lions' upcoming game with the Buccaneers and look back at the debacle of having only nine defenders on the filed to face the Ravens.

Detroit NewsDetroit News pundits are split on who will win between the Lions and the Bucs on Sunday. Justin Rogers: With a look of a desperate team, the Lions come out hot for a change, but have to hold on late.

List of ecclesiastical abbreviations

Lions, 27-23James Hawkins: The Lions and Buccaneers are both falling apart. Buccaneers, 21-17John Niyo: They've seen the enemy, and it is them. And unlike Baltimore, the Bucs aren't in the playoff mix. Lions, 24-17Bob Wojnowski: The Lions are fading and battered, but so are the Buccaneers. So if the Lions have anything left, this is the place to show it. Log inSubscribe today for full access on your desktop, tablet, and mobile device. Subscribe NowAlready a print edition subscriber, but don't have a login.

Activate your digital access. Manage your account settings. Prints charming: biometric security reaches the billions. Deloitte Global predicts that the active base of fingerprint-reader-equipped devices will top one billion for the first time in early 2017. There are multiple private and public organizations which should consider how best to exploit the growing base of fingerprint readers and the large number of individuals who have become accustomed to using them on their phones.

Click here to view the infographicDDoS attacks enter the terabit era. Deloitte Global predicts in 2017, Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks, a form of cyberattack, will become larger in scale, harder to mitigate and more frequent. Over the past few years, it has been a game of cat and mouse in which neither side has become too powerful, but this might change in 2017 due to the abundance of insecure IoT devices and the fact that large-scale attacks which exploit IoT devices' vulnerabilities have become simpler to execute.

Click here to view the infographicSafety first: the road to self-driving starts with a stop. Deloitte Global predicts that by 2022, annual US motor vehicle fatalities could fall by 6,000. Although there are other motor vehicle safety technologies that are likely to contribute to this reduction, the single greatest factor will be automatic emergency braking (AEB) technologies. Click here to view the infographic5G: a revolution in evolution, even in 2017.The company, which is part of Paddy Power Betfair, a bookmaking business based in Dublin, is advertising the three-month contracted position amid sustained interest in Trump-related bets.

A Paddy Power spokesman insisted the job is a real one, despite the irreverent manner in which its advertisement is written. Trump that implied something terrible had happened in Sweden the night before. On its website, Paddy Power offers customers a variety of potential bets tied to the Trump administration. View all New York Times newsletters. They include which member of the Trump administration is likely to resign next Attorney General Jeff Sessions is a 2-to-1 favorite and whether the president will seek to have his likeness added to Mount Rushmore this year, at 100 to 1.

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For example, the company sent a hearse to the stadium used by the British soccer team Leicester City after the team fired its manager, Claudio Ranieri, last month, less than a year after winning the English Premier League.

We sent a hearse to Leicester this evening to signal the death of football following the sacking of Claudio Ranieri. The club had a 5000-to-1 chance of winning the league entering the 2015-16 season. Tell us what you think. You must select a newsletter to subscribe to. Sign Up You agree to receive occasional updates and special offers for The New York Times's products and services. Thank you for subscribing. An error has occurred. You are already subscribed to this email.

Religion Abbreviations

Related Coverage Stocks Are Up 5 Percent Under Trump. So How Long Will the Rally Last.

religious abbreviations

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religious abbreviations

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religious abbreviations

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Jordan Peterson - Reconciling Science and Religion

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